王國維 (1877 - 1927)

近代著名詞人、國學大師。字靜安,又字伯隅,號觀堂,又號永觀。浙江海寧人。16歲入讀杭州崇文書院。17歲中秀才。1898年往上海,任《時務報》書記、校對,學習新學和西學。1901年,受羅振玉之助留學日本,得藤田豐八博士介紹,入讀東京物理學校,習英文及數學。翌年夏,因病回上海,此後數年,逐步閱讀歐州哲學、哲學史、社會學、心理學等書籍,尤好康德及叔本華哲學。1906年入京,專力研究宋詞元曲。又一年,歷任學部總務同行走、學部圖書館編譯、名詞館協韻等職。1911年,辛亥革命爆發,隨羅振玉避居日本京都,致力研究甲骨文、金文和漢簡。1916年,回國編輯《學術叢編》雜誌。1922年,任北京大學通訊導師,次年,應召為清故宮南書房行走。1925年,任清華大學文學研究院教授。

王國維生平著作甚多,其名作《人間詞話》採用西洋美學,以嶄新的角度評論中國詩詞,具有開創性的意義,向受學術界推許。1927年,於北京頤和園投昆明湖自盡,享年50歲。


Wang Guowei (1877 - 1927)

A prestigious writer of lyrical poetry and scholar of classical Chinese writings; also named Wang Jing’an, Wang Boyu, Wang Guantang and Wang Yongguan. Born in Haining, Zhejiang province. Wang Guowei entered Hangzhou Chongwen College at the age of 16. At 17, he passed the imperial examination at the county level. In 1898, he went to Shanghai where he worked as a clerk and the proof-reader of Current Affairs, and enriched himself in New Learning and Western Learning. In 1901, with the financial support of Luo Zhenyu, he went to Japan to study in the Tokyo Physics School, where he studied English and Mathematics. In the following year, he fell ill and had to return to Shanghai. In the several years that followed, he started reading up on continental philosophy, the history of philosophy, sociology and psychology. The works of Emmanuel Kant and Arthur Schopenhauer were of particular interest to him. In 1906, he went to Beijing, devoting himself to the studies of the lyrics of the Song Dynasty and the verses of the Yuan Dynasty. Since 1907, he took up a series of scholastic posts in the Manchurian Court. With the outbreak of the 1911 Revolution, he moved to Kyoto with Luo Zhenyu to stay away from the conflict. He devoted himself to the studies of ancient oracle-bone scriptures (of Shang Dynasty), and ancient inscriptions on bronze and on bamboo (of Han Dynasty). In 1916, he returned to China to edit the journal Academic Library. In 1922, he worked as the correspondent supervisor in Peking University. In 1923, he was summoned to work in the Forbidden City. In 1925, he became a professor of the College of Literature in Tsinghua University.

Wang produced a good number of scholastic works throughout his lifetime. His monograph On Lyrical Poetry was a ground-breaking piece of work, well-known for its pioneering use of Western aesthetic theories in its critique of Chinese poetry and lyrical poetry. It won high acclaims in the academia. In 1927, he ended his life at the age of 50 by jumping into the lake of Kunming in the Summer Palace of Beijing.

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