郭沫若 (1892 - 1978)
Guo Moruo (1892 - 1978)
Originally named Guo Kaizhen, also known as Guo Shangwu; with Moruo as pseudonym. Born in Leshan, Sichuan province.
Guo Moruo went to Japan to pursue his studies in 1914. In 1918 he was admitted to the Imperial University in Kyushu, where he majored in medicine. Later he shifted his studies to literature. In 1921, he co-founded the Creation Society with Cheng Fangwu, Yu Dafu and others, and published his first collection of poetry Goddesses. After his return to China in 1923, he was appointed dean of the School of Arts at Guangdong University. In 1928, wanted by the Kuomintang police, he went into exile to Japan, where he conducted research on ancient Chinese history and palaeography. In 1937, after the outbreak of the War of Resistance against Japan, he returned to China and joined in the Anti-Japanese and National Salvation Movement. After 1941, he wrote a number of historical plays including Qu Yuan, The Tiger Talisman, and The Peacock Bladder. Historical in their settings, these plays nonetheless aim to satirize the present social situation. In 1944, he published Jiashen 300-Years Memorial Ceremony, in which he summarized the experience and historical lessons of the peasant uprising led by Li Zicheng in late Ming Dynasty. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, he became a member of the central government and served successive terms in a number of high-level government posts including president of the China Federation of Literary and Art Circles (CFLAC), chairman of the Commission of Culture and Education, vice-premier of the Government Administration Council, president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and director of the Department of Social Sciences at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.